On 5 January 2020, Regulation (EU) No 2019/2144 on type-approval requirements for motor vehicles and their trailers, and systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles, as regards their general safety and the protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users entered into force. On 6 July 2022, the Regulation will become mandatory in all member states.
Due to the technical advances made in highly developed vehicle safety systems, new possibilities will be opened up to further reduce the number of persons killed and injured. Therefore, with this Regulation a number of new technologies and safety measures will become mandatory, following a fixed timetable scheme (stages A-D). At the moment, the necessary detailed technical requirements for individual safety measures are being developed at EU and UNECE levels; some of them are already in force.
|All new vehicle types||-||6 July 2022||7 July 2024||7 January 2026|
|All first vehicle registrations||6 July 2022||7 July 2024||7 July 2026||7 January 2029|
The Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) welcomes the measures included in the Regulation to increase road safety. The Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure has strongly lobbied at the EU for the Regulation to be applied much earlier and regrets that this initiative did not obtain the required majority. From a Ministry perspective, making turn assist systems mandatory earlier could have contributed considerably to reducing the number of fatal accidents involving vulnerable road users – in particular cyclists and pedestrians.
Examples of new safety measures:
Advanced emergency braking systems for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles
For certain HGVs, buses and coaches, advanced emergency braking systems have already been mandatory for several years. In the future passenger cars and light commercial vehicles will have to be equipped with advanced emergency braking systems as well. In the first phase (time stage B), the systems will have to be able to brake automatically and independently at least when stationary or moving vehicles ahead of the motor vehicle. In the second phase (time stage C) the detection capability is to also include pedestrians and cyclists ahead of the motor vehicle.
Emergency lane-keeping systems
Passenger cars and light commercial vehicles will have to be equipped with systems that assist drivers in keeping a safe position of the vehicle with respect to the lane or road boundary, at least when a lane departure occurs or is about to occur and a collision might be imminent (time stage B and time stage C, respectively, for motor vehicles with hydraulic power assisted steering).
Intelligent speed assistance
The Regulation also provides for all motor vehicles to be equipped with a system to aid the driver in maintaining the appropriate speed for the road environment (time stage B). The driver can be made aware through the accelerator control (accelerator pedal), or through dedicated, appropriate and effective feedback, that the applicable speed limit is exceeded. It must not affect the possibility, for the drivers, of exceeding the system’s prompted vehicle speed. The systems already available as an option on many vehicle models are mostly based on the recognition of speed limits by combining camera systems (sign recognition) with navigation maps (GPS). The exact requirements to be met by the planned system functions are currently being developed at EU level and are therefore not available yet.
Driver drowsiness and attention warning system
All motor vehicles are to be equipped with systems that help the driver to continue to pay attention to the traffic situation and that warn the driver when he or she is distracted (time stage B).
Improving direct vision for HGVs
In addition, requirements for improving direct vision for buses and HGVs will be introduced (time stage D), to enhance the direct visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and other vulnerable road users from the driver’s seat by reducing to the greatest possible extent the blind spots in front and to the side of the driver.
Reversing detection system
To avoid collisions when reversing, all motor vehicles are to be equipped with a reversing detection system (time stage B) to make the driver aware of people and objects at the rear of the vehicle.
Turn assist systems and collision warning systems
Buses and HGVs are to be equipped with advanced systems that are capable of detecting pedestrians and cyclists located in close proximity to the front or nearside of the vehicle and of providing a warning or avoiding collision with such vulnerable road users (time stage B). In addition to the collision avoidance system for pedestrians and cyclists, the mandatory fitting of turn assist systems has to be emphasized, which was included in the Regulation following the initiative of the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure.
Event data recorders
Passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (time stage B) as well as buses and HGVs (time stage D) must have event data recorders to store crucial anonymized vehicle data in a short timeframe before, during and immediately after collision. This is a valuable step in obtaining more accurate, in-depth accident data. Those recorders should be capable of recording and storing data in such a way that the data can only be used by Member States to conduct road safety analysis and assess the effectiveness of specific measures taken. It must not be possible to identify the owner or the holder of a particular vehicle on the basis of the stored data is not possible.
Emergency stop signal
Passenger cars, buses and commercial vehicles will have to equipped with an emergency stop signal (time stage B). This is a light-signalling function to indicate to other road users to the rear of the vehicle that a high retardation force is being applied to the vehicle relative to the prevailing road conditions; The emergency stop signal is indicated by all direction indicators or brake lights lighting up at the same time.
Tyre pressure monitoring systems
In the future, all trailers with a maximum authorized mass of more than 3.5 tons as well as all commercial vehicles and buses will have to be equipped with an accurate tyre pressure monitoring system capable, over a wide range of road and environmental conditions, of giving an in-vehicle warning to the driver when a loss of pressure occurs in a tyre (time stage B). So far, mandatory fitting has applied only to passenger cars.
Enlarged head impact protection zone
In the future, passenger cars and light commercial vehicles will have to be designed and constructed to provide for an enlarged head impact protection zone with the aim of enhancing the protection of vulnerable road users and mitigating their potential injuries in the event of a collision (time stage C).